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Kholui, is a village situated in 360 km north-east from Moscow and known throughout the world as a center of papier-mâché lacquer miniatures. It has been a centre of Russian icon painting since 16th century. It is located on the banks of the small but deep and fancily winding Tesa River, to which it owes its name. «Kholui» or «kholuiniki», the name for wattle fences, according to Vladimir Dahl's Dictionary of the Russian Language, were used there for fishing. Lacquer miniatures on papier-mâché emerged as a new trend in Russian decorative and applied art, winning recognition throughout the world. Fedoskino, in which the craft has been developing for 200 years now, is the indisputable birthplace of Russian lacquers. Kholui started to evolve its own style much later, when some of its painters returned home after long and fruitless quests and wandering across Russia. Inspired by the accomplishments of Palekh and Mstyora craftsmen, Kholui painters Sergei Mokin, Konstantin Kosterin, Dmitri Dobrynin and Vassily Puzanov-Molev formed an association in 1934 to try their hand in the new venture. Icon painting school graduates, they were all talented professionals with vast experience, but it took Kholui painters a long time and a lot of efforts to develop their own style. At the first conference held in Kholui in 1959 on the occasion of the association's 25th anniversary scholars, art historians and critics, as well as leading painters from Palekh, Mstyora and Fedoskino, discussed a current display of over 200 exhibits and unanimously pointed to the accomplishments of Kholui craftsmen. The general opinion was that Kholui had developed its own artistic traditions and an inimitable image. Objects of new shapes and purposes appeared, and red, green and cherry-colored pieces were added to the traditional black ones. Ever since that time, Kholui became known as a center of lacquer miniatures and gained world recognition.